SPREAD BY SEEDS WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN RAINFOREST

SPREAD BY SEEDS WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN RAINFOREST
FAJAR IRSYADUL AFKAR
EMAIL: kafairsyad@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Dispersal of plants naturally one of them assisted by wildlife . A description of seed dispersal by wildlife have implications on the preservation of tropical rain forests . Therefore, this paper aims to determine what type of animal and how its role in helping the forest regeneration through seed dispersal . Dispersion is usually through the feed composition on the dung and seed germination of animal feces liar.Seperti 3 species of wildlife that have the potential spread seeds through their droppings are: Luwak Civet ( Paradoxurus hermaphroditus ) ; Javan gibbon ( Hylobates moloch ) and Bird Kutilang ( Picnonotus sp ) . Each species of wildlife consuming food resources vary from one to five types of feed , consisting of invertebrate animals ; small vertebrate animals and is mostly made up of hard drupe . Type Aprika an existing feed resources in almost every dirt . Seeds from dirt to grow and germinate faster than seeds that fell directly from the parent tree .
Keywords : wildlife , seed dispersal , plant dispersal

INTRODUCTION

Tropical rainforests have a very high biodiversity , fauna and flora in which the interact with each other . Among the existing interaction is mutually beneficial relationships between fellow . Desmukh (1992 ) explains that the mutual interaction between the plants and animals that are herbivores generally occur in tropical rain forests . Plants are a source of feed for animals and animal otherwise very beneficial to plants . Among them are useful animals in seed dispersal . Seed dispersal can effectively reduce competition between tum -harbor and its derivatives as well as makes it possible for these plants to spread new to the place . If there are no animals that disperse the seeds , the seeds will fall from the parent plant and grow to be around the mother plant . This situation will increase the competition for nutrients in the vicinity. According Ewusie (1990 ) certain plant seed dispersal carried by animals such as birds , monkeys , squirrels and bats through their droppings.
Natural forest regeneration greatly helped by animals with seeds ingested or swallowed and then tersebarkan through the manure . Suhandi (1988 ) concluded from his research that the Sumatran orangutan plays an important role in maintaining the balance of their habitat , because orangutans eat fruit seeds ingested , can indirectly help the regeneration of forests by spreading seeds that come out through the dirt and fall along exploration area . Indonesia is located in the tropics must have a tropical rain forest with a vast biodiversity is high. One of them is a mountainous tropical rain forests of the National Park of Mount Gede Pangrango . Problems that often occur at this time is very high for the benefit of human encroachment and poaching of wildlife for trade uncontrolled .
Therefore, the natural beauty of the tropical rain forest which is the source of life for humans to improve the quality of life , which was naturally be maintained because of the interaction is berkeseimbangan flora fauna , has now become unbalanced between interaction fauna and flora due to human activity . As a result of our tropical rain forests are increasingly threatened . In the end , if the threat is not prevented , then the quality of life we too in the future will become increasingly worse .









DISCUSSION

            Dispersion is one plant adaptation efforts to maintain the existence of a common kind of kepunahan.Secara dispersal of plants can be done with intermediate wind ( anemokori ) , water ( hidrokori ) , animals ( zookori ) , and the plant itself ( autokori ) . According Polunin (1994 ) , who performed animal dispersal method can be classified into two types : external ( ektozoik or epizoik ) and internally ( endozoik ) . Any dissemination / diaspora plants will make modifications so that the nature or form of activity pemencarannya do.
Seeds or fruits that are dispersed internally by animals in general have an attractive appearance ( light-colored ) , aqueous ( juicy ) , body organs or other vital parts are protected by a resistant packaging is not damaged by the digestive process , and generally become animal feed . The properties of this fruit belongs to S. cormiflorum , so the possibility of this type of animal dipencarkan . Sightings fruit S. cormiflorum red to dark purple when ripe , with a sour to sweet taste , is an attraction for animals to eat . Such sightings are the traits of a plant that pemencarannya carried by animals
            The food by the animals vary widely in composition , ranging from one to five kinds of foods consisting of fruits that contain seeds crustaceans , grasses and invertebrates and vertebrate animals kecil.Biji size is the largest proportion of the feed composition in the dirt . Therefore, seed dispersal by animals through their droppings are very unhelpful to the plant in alam.Dalam this is almost 68 % of the seed plant species exist in every dirt Aprika . Aprika is a favorite food of the tribe Viverridae animals and wildlife so they can sustain their own source of food . In addition there are 6 types Aprika palm fruit eaten by the tribe Viverridae and spread the seeds through their droppings . True to its name , also known as civet civet common palm civet , an animal that pleased with the types of palm
Seeds were removed through the dirt in general will be able to germinate and grow faster than the seed that fell directly from the mother plant , for example, the seeds of the plant through the dirt Aprika that can germinate after approximately between 16 days to 30 days while the seed that fell directly from parent tree , when observed up to 14 days after seed germination of dirt still there was no sign of germination. Similarly, for the type of banyan Walen and other types . The rapid seed germination of wildlife dirt course because of the relief of gastric fluid has a pH of 2 ( Weisz , 1959) . This acidic liquid can help softening the hard seed coat . Conversely seed that fell directly from the parent tree , when it fell on the ground is still covered with flesh and skin of the fruit , so it still takes a long time to process the release and germination . Acceleration process perkecam - materials also greatly aided by the presence of sufficient sunlight in hutan.Sampel more wildlife droppings are in a location without shade canopy trees ( 60 % ) compared with the location of existing shade ( 40 % ) . This debris can be seen for example in the dirt ferret badgers are usually defecate in open areas without shade canopy of trees in the vicinity. The existence of the location without shade in the forest very helpful sunlight penetrates the forest , thus speeding up the germination . One advantage of seed dispersal via animal feces is the nature of the animal that has high mobility on the move , so that wildlife can eat somewhere and throw feces containing seeds at another location chosen .











CONCLUSION

From the above discussion it can be concluded as follows :
1.      There are 3 types of wildlife that have the potential spread seeds through their droppings are: civet civet ( Paradoxurus hermaphroditus ) ; Javan gibbon ( Hylobates moloch ) and finches ( Picnonotus sp ) .
2.      Each species of wildlife consuming food resources vary from one to five types of feed , consisting of invertebrate animals ; animals verte - brata small and mostly consist of a hard drupe . Type Aprika an existing feed resources in almost every dirt .
3.      Seeds from dirt to grow and germinate faster than seeds that fell directly from the parent tree .

REFERENCES

Desmukh I. Ecology and Tropical Biology . Torch Foundation of Indonesia, Jakarta , 1992, p . 521
Ewusie JY . Tropical Ecology . ITB Publishers , London , 1990 , p . 369 .
MacKinnon J , Phillips K , van Balen , B. The birds in Sumatra , Java , Bali and Borneo . Center for Biology LIPI and birdlife , p . 509 .

http://journal.unas.ac.id/index.php/visvitalis/article/view/17 accessed 10/10/2013
SPREAD BY SEEDS WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN RAINFOREST SPREAD BY SEEDS WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN RAINFOREST Reviewed by Penjualhewan.com on 20:09 Rating: 5

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