DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE OF GEOGRAPHY


General sense of geography is derived from the Greek, namely geo means earth and graphein which means painting or writing. Here are other notions of geography, according to experts:

- Preston E. James: Geography is the mother of all sciences

- Prof. Bintarto: Geography is a lesson to learn the causal relationship symptoms and events in earth, both physical and concerning living things and study the Earth's hallmark in                                         space and time
- Ullman: Geography is the interaction between space.

- Erastothenes: Geography is writing about the earth (geographika).understanding the earth is the earth here  covers all the symptoms and process.

-Paul Claval: Geography always explain symptoms in terms spatial.

-Maurice Le Lannou: Geography is a group of people and organization in the face of the earth.

-Seminar And workshops in Semarang (1988) say that geography is the study of the similarities and differences in the geosphere phenomenon with regional viewpoints and kelingkungan in spatial context.

            Based on the notions above, it can be seen that the area of ​​study of geography includes all phenomena that are on the surface of the earth, both natural organic and natural inorganic in interrelation and interaction in space Aspects wide geography that includes aspects of nature that are inexact , then areas of social non inexact.

            Simply put, it can be argued that the scope and role of geography it has at least four terms, as presented from the results of the UNESCO study (1965: 12-35) and Lounsbury (1975: 1-6), as follows:

1. Geography as a synthesis

That is, the discussion was essentially geography can answer questions about the substance of 5W + 1H. The process of such studies is a subject sentesis because the study covers, what will be examined, where it is, why is that, when it happens, and how to proceed?

2. Geography as a review of symptoms and spatial relations

In this case, geography analyze phenomena, either natural or Insaniah. Moreover, the geography of the study and examine the relationships, interactions, even interdependencies one particular aspect other.




3. Geography as a discipline of land use

Here, the emphasis on the aspects of the use of geographical space that must be deepened, for more rapid population growth means that demand improvement of the support, the expansion of facilities such as roads, housing, public buildings, etc.

4. Geography as a science

It was intended that the two things can be achieved, namely enhancing the implementation of scientific research for the sake of the discipline of geography itself dynamically according to the needs of the increasingly rapid development of science and practical research to improve the life interest in improving the welfare of mankind (Sumaatmadja, 1988: 41)

Then, that geographical coverage consists of three inter-related to each other, namely:

· Environment

· Spatial

· The place

Geography is divided into various kinds, namely:

· Economic Geography

· Political Geography

· Urban Geography

· Historical Geography

· Geography Population

· Social Geography

· Geographical Information Systems


    APPROACH, METHOD, AND ENGINEERING RESEARCH GEOGRAPHY

   According to R. Bintarto and Surastopo Hadisumarno in Geography Analysis Method (1979: 12) suggests three approaches, namely:

1. Spatial Analysis Approach

In this study, studied the differences in the location of the important properties, such as studying the pattern of spread

2. Ecological Approach

In this approach, studied about the interactions between living organisms and the environment, such as humans, animals, plants, and the environment, such as the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

3. Regional Approach

Approach is a combination of the spatial and ecological analysis. In this approach, there are two activities that need to be done, namely zoning (Regionalization) and classification (classification).

            Next is a geography research methods. There are several kinds of geographical research methods, namely:

a. Descriptive methods

This method is most commonly used since the birth of geography as academic disciplines. This method gives an explanation, either natural or nature Insaniah with menungkap characteristics, explorative, functional relationships, and the impact of a phenomenon or event.

b. Experimental Methods and Correlation

This approach emphasizes the hypothesis testing to formulate laws and theories.

c. Ex Post Facto method

This method of viewing and examining the relationship between two or more variables, where the variables studied had occurred previously or are not given special treatment. Ex Post Facto means after the fact because in this study the researchers do not need to do manipulation or treatment of independent variables.

Next, a research technique that is widely used in geography are:

a. Field observations

Data collection techniques is a way to see immediate symptoms and geographical problems of this technique is the most widely used for studies of geographical

b. Interview

An engineering research by conducting interviews with respondents to obtain information beyond the mere observation

c. The questionnaire or Questionnaire

Data collection techniques is to deploy a number of questions, whether they are open or closed and conducted through written questions

d. Documentary Studies

Pengumenpulan engineering data is an attempt to examine any written material, films and records (records)

e. Library Studies

Data collection techniques is to examine a variety of theories, principles, concepts, and laws that apply in geography All of this is required as a data theoretical relevant to the needs of the study or research Therefore, a study of geography is impossible to do without the study of literature (Sumaatmadja 1988: 110)


    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

· At the time of Homer and Hesoidos some consider knowledge about the earth is still influenced by mythology

· At the time of Thales, still assume that the earth is a cylindrical piece of floating on water with half a hollow ball. Opinion was lost a century later after Parmenindes expressed the opinion that the earth has a spherical shape.

· In ancient Greece, Herodotus (485-425 BC) was the first to make a map of the world that divide it into three parts, namely Europe, Asia, Libya (Africa)

· Heracleides (320 BC) has services in astronomy, he argued that the earth rotates on its axis Darri west to east. And known to the climate zone.



    BENEFITS OF APPLIED GEOGRAPHY

Since the 1950s, the role of geography in data collection and analisinya used as a guide in the development plans of the city and the region and some of the technical developments geared to practical purposes.



    CONCEPTS GEOGRAPHY

Here are the concepts of geography:

· The place

· Population Census

· Climate

· Sea

· Environment

· Continent

· Urbanization

· Map

· City

· Mortality

· Equator

· Demographics

· Land

· Transmigration

· Region


    THEORIES GEOGRAPHY

1. Population Explosion Theory of Thomas Robert Malthus

In theory, Thomas Robert Malthus found:

a. Human society will remain poor because of the tendency of population growth goes more cepatdari food supply.

b. Population growth is like rows of time or geometrically

2. Theory of Climate Influence on Civilization Ellsworth Huntington

Ellsworth basic thoughts:

a. In the 20th century in Central Asia and Southwest expected deterioration of civilization caused by climate change.

b. The process of progressive drying of the earth follow a certain direction.

3. Theory of Land Location Johann Heinrich von Thünen

Johann Heinrich von Thünen suggested that basically peggunaan land can be divided into multiple usage.

4. Power Centrifugal and Centripetal Theory Charles O. Colby

Centrifugal power to encourage residents and businesses to move to the outside, causing the dispersion of human activities and the relocation of sectors and zones of the city.

Centripetal power to encourage residents and businesses to move into the city, causing the concentration of community activities.

5. Theory of Concentric City Burgess

a. City extends equally and evenly so that the center of an emerging new zones as expansion.

b. Every moment can be found a number of concentric zones located so that the structure of the city into a flanged (circular)

6. Theory of Conflict Between the nomadic tribes sedentary Jean Bunhes

Some basic content of the theory:

a. Steppes grasslands in Asia with the cruel winter does not allow processing intensive nature.

b. The soil is naturally well suited to the type of pastoral to maintain herds and animals.

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